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The Road to Electrification is Paved with Convenient Chargers

We need more and better charging infrastructure to win over electric vehicle skeptics.


“Excuse me, do you know the way to the clean energy transition?” Source: ABC

The best way to get the American consumer to participate in the energy revolution is to ensure that it requires no effort on their part.

People love renewables, as long as they remain invisible. They are happy to vote for aggressive renewable portfolio standards, as long as they don’t notice an impact on their bill. The less we ask people to change their behavior, the easier it is to make progress.

Unfortunately, it will be hard to electrify personal vehicles without drivers noticing. We won’t be able to swap people’s conventional cars for shiny new EVs while they are looking the other way. Instead, Americans have to be lured out of their fossil-mobiles voluntarily, and that requires the promise of something demonstrably better.

That is exactly what led to Tesla’s initial success. Tesla buyers don’t feel like they are compromising on quality to save the environment—they think they are getting something better. With a Tesla, you get to feel morally and materially superior at the same time.

Deep decarbonization requires this sort of product quality across the board: we need an electric vehicle “for every purse and purpose” that is not just on par with its fossil counterparts, but is actually an upgrade. This is a tall order on many fronts, but I think the biggest challenge lies not with designing or marketing the next generation of vehicles, but with ensuring a charging infrastructure that makes EVs seem like the easier, more convenient option to nearly all Americans.

Which is more important, the chicken or the egg?

Conventional analysis highlights two main barriers to EV adoption: sticker price and concerns about charging, that is, range anxiety.

Battery price declines are solving the first problem. BloombergNEF projects EV cost parity with conventional vehicles in the next two or three years, with EVs enjoying a cost advantage going forward, even before subsidies are figured in. Policy can help by juicing tax credits (as the Biden administration proposes) and tightening fuel economy regulations (like in the EU). Product offerings remain uneven across categories, but diversity is expanding rapidly.


Battery prices continue declining by double digit percentages per year. BNEF

But, the second problem—range anxiety—still needs work. If we focus on the goal of making EV charging feel “effortless” and “easier than gas” to the broadest possible swath of the American consumer, then the magnitude of the challenge starts to take shape.

Can EV charging be better and more convenient than gas?

The Biden administration is touting a target of 500,000 public charging stations by 2030. This is meant to be a mix of public and shared private (i.e., workplace and multi-unit dwellings), with probably a couple of plugs per station (DOE currently estimates that there are roughly 43,000 stations with 105,000 plugs).

Would this overcome our collective range anxiety? A number of high quality studies (here, here, here, and here) have estimated the charging infrastructure needed to support significant EV penetration. (Others show how advances in ride sharing and automation could greatly reduce infrastructure needs.) These studies suggest that the Biden target is adequate to support a fleet that was around 20% electric by 2030, which is broadly consistent with a target of full electrification of new vehicles by 2035.

But saying a public charging network is viable is still a long way from saying it is superior to refueling with gas, which is what will be needed to win over millions of Americans who are skeptical of EVs.

Fortunately, EV charging is already more convenient most of the time for many people. Once you have a home charger setup, charging at home is easier than having to refuel at the gas station. Ditto charging at work, if you can secure a spot.

If you add to that ubiquitous public charging at retailers, integration of parking fees and charging in both lots and street meters, a common platform for vehicle to grid communication, and a unified, simple billing system with low prices, then you can start to imagine a utopian future where charging your EV is a passive, effortless activity that drivers hardly notice, vastly preferred to stopping at a gas station (unless you like inhaling the fumes).

But, there is a lot of hard work and innovation between here and there, and EV charging has some structural weaknesses compared to gas.

EVs cannot, and will never, outperform fossil vehicles in refueling speed.

As Andy explained in a previous post, a gas pump in the US is limited to pumping 10 gallons a minute. At that rate, a vehicle with average fuel economy (25 mpg) can add 250 miles of range per minute.

A level two charger (the kind you find at retailers and install in your home) adds range to an EV at about 25 miles per hour. Put differently, after a minute of charging, you get enough juice to drive a Chevy Bolt twice around your high school track, while a Chevy Equinox sips enough gas in that minute to drive from Los Angeles to Las Vegas. (East Coasters could drive from New York to DC, then loop back and do a few donuts around Baltimore.)


This Chevron station in Jean, NV has 96 pumps, which can provide range per hour equivalent to more than 50,000 level 2 plugs, or about 75% of Tesla’s entire US supercharging network. Source

And EV infrastructure has to compete with a fully mature incumbent fossil network. There are around 115,000 gasoline stations in the US, with something like 10 pumps per station. This means our fossil infrastructure has the capacity to pump out 17 billion miles of range per hour, equivalent to servicing the entire 3.2 trillion annual miles of personal vehicle travel in under 200 hours. That is convenient, ubiquitous power.

EVs can’t compete, at least not directly (assuming battery swapping remains niche). Suppose you wanted to service the aforementioned 20% of vehicle miles traveled in 2030 with EVs, and you wanted the same flow capacity in terms of range per hour across the fleet to match the current gas infrastructure, so you can fill up in 200 hours. Assuming 80% of charging is done at home, you’d still need more than 25 million public level two plugs, or 2.5 million DC fast chargers, which are the fancy (and expensive) kind.

This matters mostly for facilitating road trips. Only 5% of vehicle trips are longer than 30 miles, but I think these trips play an outsized role in the psychology of EV adoption for many.

The solution is to build a network of DC fast chargers along highways, as the Department of Transportation intends. These chargers add more like 250 range miles per hour. Even then, refueling will take 30 minutes or an hour. This is hardly insurmountable, but it still fails on the “entirely effortless” metric.

But even beyond road trips, there are fundamental hurdles facing millions of drivers. Most people can’t charge at work, and even charging at home is a problem for many, including the roughly one-third of Americans who live in multi-unit dwellings, and a substantial number who will need panel upgrades to install a level 2 charger at home.

For these households, going electric is a hassle. Some of them will be “EV curious,” and they might find a way to make it work. But others will be “EV hesitant,” and for them, these barriers are all the reason they’ll need to stick with the fossil-based status quo.

It pays dividends now to think about rolling out a network that not only aims to service drivers who are going electric in the near term, but also thinks ahead about looming barriers to mass adoption. The administration’s plan calls for special attention to highway corridors, as well as multi-unit dwellings, so they seem to be on the right track. But these challenges will only be met with sustained investments over a long period, and we are all still waiting for the US Senate to fully embrace infrastructure week.

Can we travel the long road ahead, and quickly?

California has a goal to sell 100% electric (or other non-fossil) new vehicles by 2035, and a number of countries have expressed similar aspirations. To get there, EVs can’t just be on par with gasoline incumbents, they have to be better, cheaper and more convenient.

A robust charging network is a necessary step for overcoming EV hesitancy, but it is certainly not sufficient.  Widespread adoption likely requires not just making EVs as appealing as possible, but also throwing roadblocks in the way of fossil vehicles—like pricing externalities, or perhaps using low emissions zones that exclude all fossil vehicles from central cities, and eventually an outright ban.

Our future depends on our collective ability to reimagine transportation in a way that makes electric vehicles the default choice for everyone. This undoubtedly requires at least a dash of behavior change from consumers, but policy would do well to focus on minimizing the effort required of consumers if we are serious about converting the entire US fleet.

Keep up with Energy Institute blogs, research, and events on Twitter @energyathaas.

Suggested citation: Sallee, James. “The Road to Electrification is Paved with Convenient Chargers” Energy Institute Blog, UC Berkeley, June 14, 2021,

James Sallee View All

James M. Sallee is an Associate Professor in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at UC Berkeley, a Research Associate of the Energy Institute at Haas, and a Faculty Research Fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is a public economist who studies topics related to energy, the environment and taxation. Much of his work evaluates policies aimed at mitigating greenhouse gas emissions related to the use of automobiles.

15 thoughts on “The Road to Electrification is Paved with Convenient Chargers Leave a comment

  1. So many good points in article and comments. I recently drove my 2020 Bolt from the Bay Area to Yosemite NP. Before going, I was surprised, even dismayed, to see how few Level 3 (DC fast) chargers there are along the route (120), i.e. this is California, why isn’t our infrastructure more robust and why can’t I pay directly with my credit card? Though there were non-functioning chargers in each of the 3 places I had hoped to charge, I was able to “top off” at 2 of them, only 15-20 minutes each time, on the way east. In both cases, I wanted to stop anyway, for a bio break and a coffee.
    In YNP, I was fortunate to find in the parking lot of the store the only Level 2 charger to be working and available. That was my only long charge, about 2.5 hours, fortunately in a gorgeous setting while I ate lunch and wandered about. Due to this full charge in the Valley, I made it back west on 120, east on 108 about 25 miles, then back again to the Bay Area. I stopped in Oakdale to top off, but I likely could have made it back home from the Valley plus short detour without any extra charge. My trip east definitely took significantly more time than a ICE car would have required, but my trip back west, with more downhill, was equivalent to the ICE, mostly because I was lucky enough to find a charger in the national park to get a full charge.
    Since that experience, which was my first trip over 250 miles and my first attempt to use a fee-for-use charger, I agree with the comments above re “charging anxiety”. I was not worried about my range, but I was quite anxious about whether the few chargers on 120 would even be working. Doing the same trip again, I would still have charging anxiety, for sure.
    As for the city I live in, I believe the greatest challenge for promoting EVs is in making charging available for people who live in multi-unit buildings. Street-level DC fast charging near these buildings that can be paid for with a credit card is essential. I am usually topping off, so for me, a Level 3 charger (w standard payment mechanism!) anywhere I’m going to be for at least 15 minutes could be very convenient and easy, e.g. clinic/hospital/office parking lots, parks, shopping areas, etc. BTW my city gives rebates for the purchase of used as well as new EVs.

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